Minimal change disease (MCD) is a common glomerular disease which usually happens among children. MCD usually occurs on the children who are 1-6 years old, and about 10%-30% adults may also get MCD. Recently, some patients ask us about how to diagnose minimal change disease.
The clinical manifestation of minimal change disease is nephritic syndrome, so it often accompanies with some obvious symptoms such as swelling, a large amount of foamy urine, blood urine, hypoproteinemia, change in blood pressure, hyperlipidemia and changes in kidney function. Depending on these symptoms, people can be diagnosed as they may get MCD. However, only diagnosing from the symptoms is not precise, because some other kidney disease may also have these symptoms. So, people also need to have some medical tests to make sure of the accurate disease. The common medical tests include:
1. Urine test
People with MCD often have a large amount of proteinuria. The proteinuria is often high selectivity, and it usually is albumin. The leaking out of urine protein is more than 10g everyday.
2. Blood urine
There are about 20% of minimal change disease patients who have blood urine under the test of microscope.
3. Kidney biopsy
The kidney biopsy can make an accurate diagnosis of MCD. MCD often have these pathological characters:
- The glomeruli are basically normal under the light microscope, and proximal convoluted tubule epithelial cells have fatty degeneration.
- The examination of immunopathogenesis is feminine.
- The foot process of glomerular visceral epithelial cells are disappeared extensively, and there is no accumulation of electron dense in the glomeruli.
Through these pathological characters, we can diagnose patients getting MCD.
For people who are suffering from some symptoms of kidney disease, it’s better for them to have early diagnosis of the kidney disease type. Then they can have early treatments which are aimed at their kidney disease type and their illness condition, and the personalized treatments will have great influence on their illness condition.