AKI can be caused by systemic disease (such as a manifestation of an autoimmune disease, e.g. lupus nephritis), crush injury, contrast agents, some antibiotics, and more. It is often multifactorial. The most common cause is dehydration and sepsis combined with nephrotoxic drugs, especially following surgery or contrast agents. Contact ONLINE DOCTOR to get more details quickly and directly for free.
Prerenal causes of AKI ("pre-renal azotemia") are those that decrease effective blood flow to the kidney. These include systemic causes, such as low blood volume, low blood pressure, heart failure, liver cirrhosis and local changes to the blood vessels supplying the kidney. The latter include renal artery stenosis, or the narrowing of the renal artery which supplies the kidney with blood, and renal vein thrombosis, which is the formation of a blood clot in the renal vein that drains blood from the kidney.
Renal ischaemia can result in depression of GFR. Causes include inadequate cardiac output and hypovolemia or vascular diseases causing reduced perfusion of both kidneys. Both kidneys need to be affected as one kidney is still more than adequate for normal kidney function.
Sources of damage to the kidney itself are dubbed intrinsic. Intrinsic AKI can be due to damage to the glomeruli, renal tubules, or interstitium. Common causes of each are glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis (ATN), and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN), respectively. Other causes of intrinsic AKI are rhabdomyolysis and tumor lysis syndrome.
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